Policy Resource

What's in the Budget for Babies?

Feb 21, 2018

ZERO TO THREE’s analysis of federal funding examines funding levels across agencies for the programs and services that impact infants, toddlers, and their families, comparing the final amounts with the President’s proposal and actual levels.

Each year, the President and Congress develops a budget for the upcoming federal fiscal year. ZERO TO THREE analyzes the budget by examining funding levels across agencies for the programs and services that impact infants, toddlers, and their families, and compare the final amounts with the President’s proposal and the previous year’s actual levels. The analysis uses the perspective of the supports infants and toddlers need to succeed - good health, strong families, and positive early learning experiences. Today’s young children are the key to the long-term security and global competitiveness of our country. How we support their development now will determine the strength of our nation in the future.

ZERO TO THREE tracks 70 programs and subprograms in areas that include early care and learning, health and mental health, child welfare, and justice programs. A number of programs that are not aimed solely at children are included on the assumption that children do benefit from broader health or basic needs programs and that their parents’ wellbeing is also important to their own. This analysis does not include tax policies, such as the Child and Dependent Care Tax Credit or the Earned Income Tax Credit, that also benefit children and account for almost 40 percent of total expenditures on children birth to age 18.

To learn more about the federal budget process, see The Federal Budget Process At-A-Glance.

For ideas on how to get involved, see Babies and the Budget: Opportunities for Action.

Health and Human Services Programs

Early Care and Learning Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2017 Omnibus FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)
Mandatory funds
$2,917 $2,917 $2,917 $2,917 $2,917 $2,197 $2,197
Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG)
Discretionary funds
$2,435 $2,761 $2,962 $2,856 $2,761 $2,860 $2,856
CCDBG Infant- Toddler Targeted Funds1
(non-additive)
($112) ($127) ($170) ($167) ($164) ($167) ($167)
Head Start/ Early Head Start
Discretionary funds
$8,598 $9,168 $9,602 $9,253 $9,151 $9,275 $9,253
Early Head Start Expansion & Child Care Partnership Grants
(non-additive)
($500) ($635) ($645) ($640) ($635) ($640) ($640)
Preschool Development Grants2 $250 $250 $350 $250 $0 $250 $250


Child Welfare Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Title IV-B, Subpart 1, Child Welfare Services
Discretionary funds
$269 $269 $269 $269 $268 $269
Title IV-B, Promoting Safe and Stable Families
Discretionary Funds
$60 $60 $80 $60 $60 $60
Title IV-B, Promoting Safe and Stable Families
Mandatory Funds
$345 $345 $345 $325 $345 $325
Title IV-B, Part 2, Court Improvement Fund
From Mandatory and Discretionary Funds
($30) ($30) ($30) ($30) ($30) n/a
Title IV-B, Child Welfare Research, Training, and Demonstration
Discretionary Funds
$16 $18 $22 $18 $18 $18
Title IV-E, Foster Care
Mandatory funds
$4,669 $4,772 $5,243 $5,302 $5,537 $5,537
Title IV-E Tribal Title, Technical Assistance
Mandatory funds
$3 $3 $3 $3 $3 $3
Title IV-E Adoption Assistance
Mandatory funds
$2,473 $2,674 $2,780 $2,658 $2,867 $2,867
Adoption Opportunities
Discretionary Funds
$39 $39 $39 $39 $30 $39
Adoption Incentives
Discretionary Funds
$38 $38 $38 $38 $38 $38
Guardianship Assistance
Mandatory funds
$101 $135 $152 $152 $181 $181
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) Child Protective Services State Grants
Discretionary Funds
$25 $25 $25 $25 $25 $25
CAPTA Discretionary Grants
Discretionary Funds
$29 $33 $44 $33 $33 $33
CAPTA Community-Based Grants for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect
Discretionary Funds
$40 $40 $40 $40 $40 $40


Health and Mental Health Services

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Medicaid3 Mandatory funds $338,081 $356,818 $377,586 $377,586 $410,018 $410,018
Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP)4
Mandatory funds
$9,142 $14,400 $15,000 $16,654 $12,017 n/a
Maternal and Child Health Block Grant (MCHBG)
Discretionary funds
$637 $638 $638 $642 $667 $642
Healthy Start
Discretionary funds
$102 $103 $104 $104 $128 $128
Community Health Centers
Discretionary funds
$1,491 $1,491 $1,341 $1,491 $1,489 $1,491
ACA Health Center Fund5
Mandatory funds
$3,600 $3,605 $3,695 $3,600 $3,600 n/a
Emergency Medical Services for Children
Discretionary funds
$20 $20 $20 $20 $0 $20
Universal Newborn Hearing Screening
Discretionary funds
$18 $18 $18 $18 $0 $18
Children’s Hospitals Graduate Medical Education Program
Discretionary Funds
$265 $295 $300 $295 $300
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development $1,287 $1,340 $1,317 $1,380 $1,032 $1,402
CDC Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
Child Health and Development (Includes funds for Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
$132
($64)
$136
($66)
$136
($66)
$138
($11)
$100 $138
Community Mental Health Services Block Grant
Discretionary funds
$462 $512 $512 $512 $400 $400
Mental Health Services for Children
Discretionary funds
$117 $119 $119 $119 $119 $119
Priority Mental Health Needs (PRANS)
Discretionary funds
$367 $415 $386 $387 $277 $309
National Child Traumatic Stress Network
(non-additive)
($46) ($47) ($47) ($49) ($47) ($49)
Project LAUNCH (non-additive) ($35) ($35) ($35) ($24) ($34) ($24)
Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant
Discretionary funds
$1,741 $1,858 $1,858 $1,779 $1,775 $1,779
Priority Substance Abuse Prevention Needs (PRNS)
Discretionary funds
$175 $211 $195 $223 $150 $165
Priority Substance Abuse Treatment Needs (PRANS)
Discretionary funds
$362 $337 $298 $352 $342 $351
Pregnant and Post-Partum Women ($16) ($16) ($16) ($20) ($16) ($20)


Family Support Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)6
Mandatory funds
$17,345 $16,500 $20,097 $17,345 $15,132 n/a
Social Services Block Grant (SSBG)
Mandatory funds
$1,700 $1,7007 $1,700 $1,700 $0 $1,700
Community Services Block Grant (CSBG)
Discretionary funds
$674 $715 $674 $715 $0 $600
LIHEAP
Discretionary funds
$2,800 $3,390 $3,000 $3,390 $0 $3,390
Maternal, Infant, and Early Childhood Home Visiting
Mandatory funds
$400 $4008 $400 $400 $400 n/a


Education Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Preschool for All9
Mandatory funds
$1,300 n/a n/a
Comprehensive Literacy State Development Grant10
Discretionary funds
$160 $190 $190 $190 $0 $0
Education Innovation and Research11
Discretionary funds
$120 $120 $180 $100 $370 $0
Part B of IDEA, Preschool Grants
Discretionary funds
$353 $366 $403 $368 $368 $368
Part C of IDEA, Grants for Infants and Families
Discretionary funds
$439 $459 $504 $459 $458 $459
Promise Neighborhoods
Discretionary funds
$57 $73 $128 $73 $60 $60
Child Care Access Means Parents in School
Discretionary funds
$15 $15 $15 $15 $0 $0


Nutrition Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC)
Discretionary funds
$6,823 $6,350 $6,350 $6,350 $6,150 $6,150
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
Mandatory funds
$81,800 $80,849 $81,689 $78,481 $73,613 $73,610
Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
Mandatory funds
$3,196 $3,452 $3,446 $3,491 $3,920 $3,919


Justice Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Edward Byrne Justice Assistance Grants
Discretionary funds
$376 $376 $280 $403 $333 $500
Byrne Criminal Justice Innovation Grants
Discretionary funds
$11 $13 $24 $18 $0 $10
Court Appointed Special Advocate Program
Discretionary funds
$6 $8 $5 $9 $9 $9
Defending Childhood/Children Exposed to Violence
Discretionary funds
$8 $7 $21 $8 $8 n/a13
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention —Title II Part B Formula Grant
Discretionary funds
$55 $51 $75 $55 $58 $0
Rural Domestic Violence and Child Abuse Enforcement Assistance
Discretionary funds
$33 $29 $34 $35 $34 $35
Child Abuse Training for Judicial Personnel
Discretionary funds
$1 $2 $1 $2 $2 $2
Programs under Victims of Child Abuse Act
Discretionary funds
$19 $18 $11 $21 $20 $21


Labor Programs

Funding Levels in Millions of Dollars

Federal Program FY 2015 Omnibus Bill FY 2016 Omnibus Bill FY 2017 President’s Budget FY 2018 President’s Budget FY 2018 House FY 2018 Senate
Paid Family Leave
Mandatory funds
$2,213 Proposed 14 n/a


References

1. The infant-toddler quality improvement funds formerly were a set-aside within the overall CCDBG appropriation. Starting in FY2017, states were required to set aside 3% of all CCDF funds for improving infant-toddler care. Amounts from FY 2017 on are estimated amount based on new statutory set-aside.

2. The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA), which reauthorized the Elementary-Secondary Education Act, created a successor program to the old Preschool Development Grants, also called Preschool Development Grants, moving primary administration to HHS with joint administration by the Department of Education.

3. Numbers used are Annual Appropriations Amount from the Congressional Budget Justification.

4. The funding levels for CHIP in the table represent outlays during the fiscal year. The state allotments, or the budget resources allocated to states on an annual basis, are as follows: $16.5 billion in FY 2015, $14.6 billion in FY 2016, and $20.4 billion in FY 2017. The amounts for 2015 and 2016 reflect rescissions of about $4.5 billion in those years.

5. Mandatory funding for the Community Health Centers was included in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and extended through 2017 in the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-10), commonly known as the “Doc Fix”.

6. Total TANF funding includes State Family Assistance Grants, Family Assistance Grants and Matching Grants for Territories, Health Marriage/Responsible Fatherhood Grants, Tribal Work Programs, Contingency Fund.

7. The amounts for FY 2015 and FY 2016 do not reflect the application of the sequester.

8. Ibid.

9. President Obama’s Preschool for All proposal would have provided $75 billion over 10 years to fund preK for all 4 year-olds with family income at or below 200% of poverty. This proposal was not enacted.

10. ESSA codifies a federal literacy program similar to that funded through appropriations under Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy Program for the past few years. It will continue to set aside 15% of funds for children from birth through age 5.

11. New program authorized in ESSA, continuing funding that had been under the Investing in Innovations initiative.

12. Large increase in President’s budget to test private school choice.

13. Appropriations bills combined into a Consolidated Youth-Oriented Program

14. President’s proposal would fund 6 weeks of paid leave, financed through Unemployment Insurance program.

Read more about: